The aim of RRE is to expose students to the traditions, formative processes and mutual interactions in the ancient world of the three most influential religions at the root of European culture and history: Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
The three religions have traditionally been studied more or less separately. The aspiration of RRE is to study the three religions together in their formative period from a comparative perspective and using a variety of approaches, which include historical, philological, social scientific, feminist and literary ones.
Doctrines, rituals, canonical texts, myths, religious institutions - phenomena central to each of the three religions - are studied along with their relationship to society, politics, law, gender issues, and ethics. Specific topics may include ideas of martyrdom, the justification or condemnation of war, asceticism, religious authorities, the position of women, different strategies for interpreting authoritative religious texts and many more.
The programme offers more than themes of merely historical relevance. It will also enhance the students' general understanding of contemporary Nordic, European and Western identities, since the three religions in interaction with one another have had and continue to have a profound influence on the development of European culture and society.
For centuries Christianity has been the dominant majority religion, while Judaism and Islam as minority religions have been seen as the `other,' against which Christian European identity has been shaped. In the contemporary world, by contrast, the situation is more fluent.Host Institutions
The Religious Roots of Europe (RRE) is a joint master's degree programme offered by the Faculty of Theology, the University of Oslo, in cooperation with the following five Nordic Universities:
The Centre for Theology and Religious Studies, Lund University
The Faculty of Theology, University of Aarhus
The Faculty of Theology, University of Copenhagen
The Faculty of Humanities at the University of Bergen
The Faculty of Theology, University of Helsinki
Admission to master's degree studies requires:
Higher Education Entrance Qualification and a completed bachelor's degree comparable to a Norwegian bachelor's degree. Applicants with foreign education, please refer to the country list.
a specialization defined by the programme
a minimum grade average of C (in Norwegian scale) or equivalent from the specialization in your degree.
a language requirement documented by one of the tests/exams below:
a) Passed examination in English foundation course (140 hours/5 periods per week) in Norwegian upper secondary school with a minimum grade of 4 (or an equivalent grade from a Nordic upper secondary school) or alternatively passed examination in English from second and/or third school year, or
b) An internationally recognised English language proficiency test.
Applicants should have a bachelorsdegree with a specializacion within or equivilent to:
Applicants also need documented proficiency in at least one of the following "classical" languages (i.e. 20 ECTS in one, or 10 ECTS in two of the languages):
In addition each applicant should submit a CV and a Letter of Motivation.
English proficiency required for master's degree admission
Applicants who are not native speakers of English must document their proficiency in English by taking one of the following internationally recognised tests:
IELTS and TOEFL test results must not be older than two years. Please make sure that your test result is valid at the time of application.
IELTS acadmic - International English Language Testing System with a minimum score of 6.0.
Please upload a copy of your test result. The University of Oslo will verify your test result online. It is currently not possible to submit test results with an IELTS institutional code.
TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language with a minimum score of
550 paper-based test (PBT)
80 internet-based test (iBT)
Official test report forms must be sent directly to the University of Oslo. The TOEFL code number for the University of Oslo is 0756. If you upload a copy of your test result, please make sure that the results are also sent directly from ETS.
Students who have completed a minimum of one year's university studies in academic subjects in UK, USA, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand and Australia.
Students who have completed a minimum of one year of Master's Degree studies with English as a language of instruction in one of the Nordic countries
Students who have completed a Bachelor Degree with English as a language of instruction in one of the Nordic countries.
Students who have a degree in English language and/or literature.
Students with International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma.
Students who have passed University of Cambridge exams, Proficiency (CPE) or Advanced (CAE).
Students who have passed Advanced Placement International English Language examination (APIEL) with a minimum of 4 points.
No work experience is required.
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The University of Oslo is the oldest and largest university in Norway, situated in the Norwegian capital of Oslo. The university was founded in 1811 as The Royal Frederick University and was modelled after the recently established University of Berlin. It was originally named after King Frederick of Denmark and Norway and received its current name in 1939.